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Travel And Tourism In Africa

East Africa tourism report

Wolfgang H. Thome, eTN  Nov 05, 2009

A new bilateral air services agreement was signed last week, which – upon meeting other conditionalities – will permit the start of direct flights between Entebbe and any airport in the United States. One of the remaining prerequisites is the need to attain FAA Category One status, often in the past within reach and ever overtaken by new demands when ICAO’s regulatory regime was amended, likely as a result of the post 9/11 fallout for aviation safety and security. Only a handful of countries in Africa have the highly-valued status, including South Africa, Ethiopia, and Egypt, where the respective national airlines all fly to the US and in turn permit US carriers to fly to its main airport. Kenya was said to be close last year to be granted the Cat 1 status, but the planned flights by Delta Airlines were unceremoniously halted by US authorities on the eve of the inaugural flight, citing unspecified and obscure security concerns and setting back the new route by at least a year.

It was learned earlier in the week that Brussels Airlines was in the process of procuring a 5th A330-200 aircraft to add to its fleet ahead of a planned network and frequency expansion to the African continent, as the world is coming out of the long global recession, which has impacted on the performance of many airlines. In eastern Africa, SN serves Entebbe, Bujumbura, Kigali, and Nairobi but has no 5th freedom rights for its triangular flights, which always include a waypoint, while in west Africa the respective governments were happy to extend this privilege to the carrier to enhance connectivity between major cities. This column’s SN contact would, however, not be drawn into discussions regarding whether SN has actively sought 5th freedom rights for flights say between Kigali and Entebbe or between Kigali, Bujumbura, and Entebbe to Nairobi or vice versa, depending on how the flights operate. SN’s partnership with Lufthansa and its code-shared operations to both west and east Africa has also enhanced its traffic base and may be a major factor to add another long haul aircraft to its fleet. The German Week starting this weekend, and organized by the Goethe Zentrum in Kampala, was co-sponsored by both Brussels Airlines and Lufthansa, ensuring high visibility amongst a key consumer group.

British Airways has now launched its Christmas sales with a fare to London – no details are available for other European destinations – of US$ 349 return. However, the often criticized taxes and other charges drive the actual price of the ticket to approximately US$ 875, more than double than what the net cost of the ticket is. Outbound travel can take place on December 23, 25, and 26 while the return journey has to be completed by January 31, 2010. It could not be established if the recent introduction of yet another tax on air travel by the UK’s labor government is responsible for the extraordinarily high element of taxes and other charges on the ticket, which if true, may make the use of other carriers preferable, as they are not subject to the new fees at its home airports across Europe.

The Ugandan government, through the Ministry of Works and Transport, has announced that funds have been secured to repair two of the grounded rail ferries, which previously operated between Port Bell, Kampala and Mwanza, Tanzania. The ferries are a crucial element in promoting the alternative rail route from Kampala to Dar es Salaam’s port, creating redundancy to the more popular rail route to Mombasa. However, disruptions – for a variety of reasons – and underperformance of the rail operator Rift Valley Railways have strengthened sentiments in Uganda that a credible and viable second route to the ocean must be promoted, probably one of the reasons for now finally embarking on the long overdue repair jobs. The two rail ferries are expected to return to service between late 2010 and mid 2011 and will then once again operate between Port Bell, Uganda and the ports of Kisumu and Mwanza.

The long-awaited upgrade of the main highway section from Jinja towards the Kenya border has now been finally completed and the road officially opened, when the last section was handed over by the contractors to the Uganda National Roads Authority. The project was delayed for a long time when the first contractor abandoned work and was then not only formally sacked, but a very heavy penalty imposed by retaining its performance bond deposit. The highway, in sections dual carriage, was primarily funded by the European Union, which committed its support to the full rehabilitation of the “Northern Corridor” from the port city of Mombasa, via Nairobi and through Uganda into the hinterland countries of Rwanda, Burundi, eastern Congo, and southern Sudan. The new road to eastern Uganda will bring relief to many motorists and in particular the freight companies, which suffered extensive damages to its fleets when the road was potholed, broken up, and often impassable. Tourism to eastern Uganda should take a boost with the new road now open, as access to the national park of Mt. Elgon and game reserves in the region is now possible with ease, cutting driving times and offering increased road safety.

“The adventure capital of east Africa,” a title well earned through the range of adventure activities offered along the upper Nile valley below the Owens Falls hydro electric dam, is set to organize a major food and events festival in early December. Sporting competitions, including competitive white water rafting, cycling events, quad biking, and horseback riding will intersperse with fashion shows, a tourism exhibition, and food presentations from the leading chefs and restaurants/hotels in Jinja. Visit or write to for more details.

The two conservation organizations are commemorating their respective anniversaries, with the EcoTrust (Environmental Conservation Trust of Uganda) now a decade old, while Nature Uganda can look back at 100 years of conservation efforts from 1909 until 2009. Both NGOs are widely respected in the country and the region, as well as by their overseas partners and have contributed much to environmental awareness campaigns and propagating the need to conserve Uganda’s ecosystems and nature amongst policy makers, the business community, and society at large. Congrats all round for their sterling efforts. It was also announced at the same time that a two day environmental and conservation conference is due to take place in Kampala on November 19 and 20, followed by the Annual General Meeting of Nature Uganda. The venue for both events will be the Uganda Museum. Both organizations are involved in country-wide efforts with advocacy towards conservation and the protection of nature and in particular wetlands, which are under increasing threat by growing populations in search of farming areas, not understanding the crucial importance of such wetlands towards ecological balance and maintaining the bio diversity in such areas.

Positive signals came out of the State House late last month, when the Minister for Water and Environment confirmed the instructions to resume evictions of forest encroachers and timber thieves. The ministry, under which the National Forest Authority falls, will now make another concerted effort to evict those who have so far hidden behind vague orders and counter orders, and re-evict others who have crept back after receiving deceptive nods from its political godfathers, hopefully avoiding past violent clashes, which accompanied enforcement in several parts of the country and cost precious lives of forest wardens and enforcement personnel.
Conservation, however, will be better off now that clarity has been achieved, and in particular the Uganda Wildlife Authority will also be happy to have backing from the highest office in the land to continue mopping up the remaining encroachers inside Mt. Elgon National Park. Media reports in Uganda estimate the number of forest encroachers country wide at over 300,000 people, demonstrating the challenges of law enforcement and conservation efforts, when it comes to keeping protected areas intact, restoring encroached areas, and repairing the damages inflicted by indiscriminate felling of trees to established short-lived farming patches.

Across eastern Africa, the long-awaited rains have started to set in, already causing the predicted chaos and problems with floodings. Parts of Uganda, Kenya, and Ethiopia are said to have been affected, and military engineers have been dispatched to repair bridges, restore culverts, and make roads passable again after sections of trunk and feeder roads were washed out. The main road between Malindi and Lamu along the Kenyan coast was also disrupted last week when a section was swept away by the torrents. Reports about loss of property and live are gradually beginning to emerge from areas cut off from communications, making a full assessment difficult at best. Many of the areas now hammered by excessive rains have experienced a long drought before, and the baked top soil is not able to absorb rain water in such quantities, often leading to swift flash floods, while fertile soil is also being carried away by the swollen rivers after they burst their banks. Some areas, in fact, received twice the monthly average rainfall in a single day, putting the present reverse weather conditions into perspective. In the more immediate neighborhood of this correspondent’s residence, roads turned into tracks and some now resemble ravines, as murram is being swept away by the rainstorms and carried as silt into the lake. Safaris, however, are presently not affected and all main national park and game reserve destinations can be reached by road and air, although it is recommended to stay in contact with the respective safari operators to get regular weather updates for intending travelers. This information is representative for the entire east African region.

With the Kenyan delegation for the World Travel Market in London, now either on the way already or preparing to leave for the UK, the general tenor of feedback given to this column is overwhelmingly positive, and confidence has been expressed that tourism would match the pre-downturn figures once again over the forthcoming high season. For the first half of the year, it seems that the current arrivals are now only about 10 percent down on the record-breaking year 2007, and if all goes well, the country could in 2010 expect the arrivals to be even better. This is attributed to the determined work of the Kenya Tourist Board, hand in hand with the private sector, to promote the country in new and emerging markets while continuing the marketing efforts in the key producer markets of Europe and North America. Earlier in the year, Kenya Airways had flown some 250 travel agents from across Africa to Nairobi for a mega fam trip, and it is understood that this initiative has handsomely paid off with rising tourist arrivals now also recorded from other African countries. Well done Kenya and all the best in London! Meanwhile the UN WTO has confirmed that travel to Africa has risen by some 4 percent overall in the first half of the year, against the background of decreases of travel to other parts of the world, with eastern African arrivals being a major contributor to this astonishing trend.

After the opening of the Aero Club of East Africa-owned private airfield on the Athi plains outside Nairobi a few weeks ago, some pilot training companies have already started to move its operation there to take advantage of less-congested skies, which was a growing problem at Wilson Airport in the past. It was also learned from Aero Club sources that newer aircraft with better instrumentation and more fuel-efficient engines also contributed to the lower charges, but the main element comes for largely reduced charges for landing, parking, and operations at the Orly airpark. Approximate charges for a PPL (private pilot license) presently stand at about US$10,000 while the next stage, the CPL (commercial pilot license), sets a trainee back by about US$25,000, with the twin engine and instrument rating adding approximately a further US$17,000 to the bill. Thereafter, job prospects are encouraging as commercial airlines constantly scout for younger pilots with a CPL and enough hours to then train on a particular aircraft type and attain the ATPL needed. The Orly airpark is the first of its kind in eastern Africa, but hopefully not the last and was the brainchild of the venerable Harro Trempenau, long-serving chairman of the Aero Club of East Africa and fellow east African compatriot of German origin. Well done indeed Harro and colleagues for supporting grassroots aviation and attracting the next generation of aviators.

Last weekend saw the inaugural flight take place by Kenya Airways, linking Nairobi with Bangui/Central African Republic. The twice-weekly flights on Tuesdays and Thursdays will, after the stop in the CAR, then move on to Douala/Cameroon but have been granted fifth freedom rights and can carry passengers and cargo between the two cities, which will be helpful to add loadfactors and achieve extra revenue. The airline also finally publicly confirmed the speculation raised in this column a few weeks ago, that they would commence flights to eastern Congo’s city of Kisangani, due to launch on November 22. Previously, the airline was coy to deny or confirm specific questions on this development until they finally launched its sales drive, confirming the inevitable. This latest addition to the African network keeps KQ in “pole position” with the most destinations across the African continent, Ethiopian, being a close second after they added Mombasa to its network a week earlier. This route development apparently has priority over adding more destinations in Europe, which airline executives say are well covered by its alliance partners KLM and Air France, while themselves concentrating on its three key routes to Amsterdam, London, and Paris. Other sources from within Kenya Airways confirmed that its intention is to link eventually every major African city to Nairobi, from where passengers can then travel with convenient connections to the Middle East (Dubai) and also India and China, permitting traders to reach their final destinations with ease. Fares are said to be attractive and other terms and conditions, like added baggage allowances, will make KQ arguably the airline of choice for travelers in Africa.

An inaugural joint flight between Holland’s Martinair, a subsidiary of KLM and Kenya Airways, took off earlier this week, connecting Mombasa with Amsterdam direct. The flights operate twice a week, every Sunday and Wednesday, from Mombasa, and the aircraft used will be a B767. This follows hot on the heels of Ethiopian Airlines commencing scheduled flights from Addis Ababa to Mombasa, with Kenya Airways now reacting to the changed market conditions.
It could not be ascertained, however, if the flight is code shared or if KQ is only selling seats on this flight.

Following the full financial year losses declared earlier this year, largely because of observing new reporting and accounting practices, the airline has for the first half of this financial year kicked the global trend and returned to profit before taxes. Last year’s loss was reportedly caused by making provisions for fuel hedge contracts. This year’s financial performance gives credence to the airline’s strategy of concentrating on its African network, from where they collect passengers traveling on Kenya Airways flights through Nairobi to its middle and far eastern destinations, while at the same time providing the most extensive African network via Nairobi of any airline on the continent. That said, strike action in August, which resulted in the airline having to pay an extra 20 percent for wages over the next two financial years, is expected to lower the gains made by cheaper fuel, and the over 600 million Kenya Shillings the strike immediately cost the carrier will also carve away some of the financial gains made in recent months. KQ’s management is cautiously optimistic that they will return to annual profit at the end of this financial year, which concludes in March 2010. However, the share price continued to linger below 25 Kenya Shillings per share, down from its peak of about 130 Kenya Shillings per share, as the financial markets remain wary over the potential for crude oil price increases, which could once again impact on the bottom line not just of KQ, but all other airlines in the region, too.

The new hotel on Nairobi’s upper hill, which is due to open before the end of the year, will be managed by Intercontinental Hotels under the name of Crowne Plaza Nairobi. The new property will feature some 163 rooms and suites and reportedly has created about 200 employment opportunities for Kenyans, a welcome bonus for many trained staff in the sector who suffered from lower occupancies since last year and have been either out of work or have not found employment after leaving college. It was also learned from Karl Hala, group operations director for Africa and general manager of the Nairobi Intercontinental Hotel that the company was intent to widen its presence in the eastern, central, and southern African region by adding at least another 10 or so new hotels to its portfolio.

Following last week’s report when attempts to excise some 60 acres of land from the Nairobi National Park for development became public knowledge, KWS has strengthened its ranger patrols along the area and reportedly also started to re-fence the boundary. Confusion surrounds the identities of those trying to grab the valuable land, but efforts are underway to bring those involved to book. Official investigations are presently focused on the land office where the irregularities seem to have originated from.

Following the completion of repairs on the railway branch line from Nairobi to Kenya’s lakeside city of Kisumu, train services have resumed early this week. This will apply for both passenger and cargo trains offering another option of traveling through Kenya for locals and visitors alike. The scenic route from Nairobi into the Rift Valley and on to Kisumu will undoubtedly hold attractions for train journey aficionados. It is understood that a dedicated passenger train, which offers sleeper cars and first-class and second-class compartments, leaves Nairobi every Friday evening and returns on Sunday from Kisumu to Nairobi arriving there on Monday early morning.
Kisumu is at the heart of “Obama”- inspired travel to western Kenya, where his paternal home is only a few miles away from the city of Kisumu. The added transportation option by train will hopefully inspire more ingenious tour packages and weekend trips offering a glimpse of where President Obama’s father grew up. Sadly, with the trains running overnight, little of the magnificent scenery enroute, in particular into and through the Rift Valley, can be seen by train users, diminishing the potential of train journeys. The trains are operated by embattled and under-pressure Rift Valley Railways, whose concession with the governments of Kenya and Uganda hangs in the balance.

A rolling blackout hit Kenya last weekend, when on Sunday evening a failure at a switch station on the outskirts of Nairobi started a trigger effect, which eventually extended from the capital Nairobi to the coast and the upcountry areas. Some switch stations were eventually brought back to life during the course of the night, but in many areas, only households and buildings with backup generators and inverters had their lights on overnight. The situation returned gradually to normal on Monday, when power to most areas of the country was restored.

Zanzibari tourism officials have taken comfort from the many US attendees of this recently-ended conference, which brought the visitors to both Dar es Salaam and to Zanzibar. The recent disputes over US State Department anti-travel advisories were also calmed when it emerged that American tourists would visit Zanzibar and Pemba anyway, leaving US embassy sources reportedly exasperated over the failure of its harshly-worded commentary to block US visitors from coming to the island. Zanzibari tourism sources also expressed their confidence that for the forthcoming high season, the island would again record high occupancies while the Christmas and New Year festive season was rapidly selling out all available beds.

An experienced British safari guide attached to a BBC filming expedition in Tanzania was attacked last week by a stray elephant in the vicinity of the Selous game reserve. The CBBC project – the BBC’s children program – was following the footsteps of David Livingstone as part of a series on explorers and had been operating with all relevant licenses it was learned, when the guide was trampled by an elephant. Although efforts were being made to airlift the injured man to a hospital for treatment, he passed away enroute to Dar es Salaam as a result of his severe injuries. Filming was immediately suspended, and the company expressed its deep regret over the loss of life. No further details were available at the time of filing this report.

News emerged from Dar es Salaam earlier in the week that the government continues to search for a strategic investor after all previous efforts to attract a Chinese airline to enter a partnership have so far born no fruits. This has resulted in a serious loss of market share, leaving the aviation field to Tanzania’s premier private airline, Precision Air, and other smaller companies now flying on routes, which previously were the domain of ATCL. Investors may also be weary over the potential fallout with labor unions, which could cripple a new set-up with early strike action should their demands for terminal benefits not be met before hand. Reportedly, the former Tanzanian flag carrier is now left with only two turboprop aircraft of Bombardier Q 300 make and has ceased operations on many of its previous routes to the disappointment of many of its faithful customers.

The Arusha-based Regional Air, a sister company of Air Kenya in Nairobi, will, from November this year, begin offsetting its carbon emissions through a contract with Carbon Tanzania, following earlier commitments made by the airline towards better environmental practices. This carbon-trading organization has global affiliation and recognition and provides real offsets, unlike some of the charlatan carbon traders offering the proverbial “hot air.” The airline, now operating in Tanzania in its twelfth year, provides scheduled flights from Arusha to the main national park airfields in the northern circuit (Tarangire, Manyara, Ngorongoro, and Serengeti) but also operates flights to Zanzibar, Dar es Salaam, Pangani, and Saadani. In a related development, the company has also switched its messengers from motor bikes to bicycles when making deliveries of tickets or collecting orders from clients and travel agencies, which produce zero emissions with its pedal power. Congratulation on this remarkable effort!

Sources in Dar es Salaam have confirmed that LAM, the national airline of Mozambique, will step up its frequencies between the two cities in response to growing demand for air travel. A third weekly flight will be introduced shortly. It was also mentioned by the same source that the airline was in the process of retiring its ageing Boeing 737 aircraft and introducing state-of-the-art, Brazilian-built Embraer models.

Effective early December, Rwanda’s national airline will add Goma in the eastern Congo DR and Dar es Salaam to its route network, making good of its promise to have wider choices for its faithful travelers before the year end. The flights to Goma, priced at US$199 return, plus taxes, will commence on December 2, and the flights to Dar, priced at US$399 return, plus taxes, on December 15. The airline presently flies to Johannesburg, Kilimanjaro/Arusha, Nairobi, Bujumbura, and, of course, Entebbe, besides serving some domestic aerodromes. Goma flights will be operated on Monday, Wednesday, Friday, and Sunday, while Dar es Salaam flights will operate on Tuesday and Sunday via Bujumbura, as will incidentally some of the daily Johannesburg flights. ¬¬¬¬

The city of Kigali will enhance security, already considered the best of all the 5 East African Community member states capitals, when camera surveillance is rolled out even further. A few key locations are already covered by CCTV, but presently the project is unfolding in other parts of the city, apart from the business district and key hotel, conference, and governmental locations and key traffic intersections.

As reported recently in this column, part of the Palm Tree Hotel in Rubavu was demolished on orders of the council, a move to which the owner has since mobilized other political and economic platforms in Rwanda. Only a few months earlier, another council had demolished the extension of a hotel on the outskirts of Kigali over allegations that the mayoress had a personal grudge to settle. The latest victim of vindictive actions also claimed to have had Italian investors lined up for further upgrades and expansion, and these plans have now stalled. Rwanda, being keen to attract foreign investment in the tourism and hospitality industry, will have seen such developments with a degree of concern probably causing the Rwanda Development Board to now launch its own investigation.

In a PR coup of special significance, last weekend the Seychelles-branded race car won the Formula 2 championship in Barcelona, Spain during the last race of the season. The branding was a joint venture between Seychelles businesses and the tourist board and paid off handsomely, as all eyes of the international media and TV broadcasters were, of course, on this particular vehicle. Congrats to the winners, and congrats to the Seychelles for backing a winner throughout the season.

Ahead of the 30th anniversary edition of World Travel Market, the STB has dispatched two staff to be seconded to the UK’s new tourism marketing office of the Seychelles. This is in preparation for the participation of STB in the November event and the formal launch of its office in London, besides interacting with key travel agents and tour operators featuring holidays on the archipelago. After WTM, the two staff will then partake in several seminars and workshops organized for the travel trade across the UK before returning home to Victoria later in the year. The formal launch of the new tourist office will reportedly be undertaken by the Seychelles Vice President, who is expected to be present at WTM to boost morale of its delegation and show the commitment of the Seychelles government to the tourism sector. The Seychellois delegation will appear in London with gusto as the latest tourism arrival figures show that the current year downturn is now less than three percent compared to last year, and a strong showing in November and December may reduce those losses even further. For 2010, the archipelago’s tourism promoters are confident that arrival statistics will once again show sustained growth. It will, however, also mean that the time for special offers will gradually run out, and pricing levels will eventually return to levels, which will permit resorts and hotels to return to better profitability next year without, however, dropping the affordable Seychelles image. Meanwhile, the Seychelles Tourist Board also used the opportunity of taking delivery of a new fuel vessel constructed at a German shipyard, the “Seychelles Paradise,” to promote the country by holding press conferences, briefings for the travel trade, and hosting cocktails on board the new ship. The new “green” vessel is a double-hull ship meeting the new stringent requirements effective January 2010 by the International Maritime Organization and will be used to provide fuel supplies from the main storage facility on Mahe to the other islands, in particular Praslin, and can also refuel other ocean-going vessels at sea if needed. The big fanfare when taking delivery of the vessel by STB coincides with extra efforts to use other events related to the Seychelles to latch on to and combine it with destination and tourism promotions. This is reportedly achieved by close liaison with the country’s diplomatic mission staff and their honorary consuls across the world, whose good offices the STB is now also using to promote the country.

During a recent marketing mission to South Africa, an agreement was reached between the Seychelles and the city of Cape Town to jointly promote twin center holidays to the city and the surrounding areas and the archipelago in South America, in particular the promising markets of Brazil and Argentina, which are connected by air to South Africa. With more air connections on the drawing board, from South Africa to both Seychelles and also to South America, the joint venture appears a natural combination for tourists wishing to combine a trip to Cape Town and the attractions of the Cape Province with a trip to one of the Indian Ocean’s most fabled holiday islands. The forthcoming FIFA World Cup next year will hopefully bring a visitor boom to South Africa, and STB was quick to jump on the opportunity to tap into some extra source markets.

A different type of poaching seems of late on the increase on the island of Praslin where the fabled Vallee de Mai National Park is located. The park, a world heritage site, is famous around the world for the coco de mer palm trees, whose fruit is uniquely shaped and in great demand, similar to blood ivory, as either a souvenir or else to grow young palms trees in people’s back yards. Reports have reached this column that over 60 of the nuts have been stolen in recent months, of which only two dozen were recovered. Security measures have subsequently been increased to protect the rare trees and its nuts better, as the park and its palm trees form the foundation of much of the visitor interest by tourists coming to Praslin on day trips from other islands. Tourism income, therefore, shapes the livelihood of much of the population on the island, and losing its base could have a severe impact on the people of Praslin. The time to mature for these nuts is an estimated 7 years, making reproduction a challenge, and the loss of even a single nut will set conservation efforts back substantially. It is understood that surveillance at the international airport is looking out for illegal smuggling of the nuts by tourists who would face heavy fines if found with them.

Reports in some UK newspapers that the Seychelles government has reached an accommodation with pirates and is turning a blind eye to their criminal activities, have been categorically rejected as false and without basis, according to sources well known to this correspondent in Victoria, the archipelago’s capital. In fact, as reported in this column repeatedly in the past, the Seychelles government has done all in its power in recent weeks to boost its capacity to patrol its own waters, extensive as they are with the 200 nautical miles economic exclusion zone mapped around the archipelago’s 115 islands. Friendly countries from the naval coalition based in Djibouti have assisted the Seychelles to build naval patrol and survey capacity, and aerial reconnaissance has also been boosted with aircraft operating out of Mahe’s International Airport. At the same time, troop contingents were deployed on to outer islands nearest to the pirate-infested waters of the Indian Ocean to deny any possibly chance of landing and resupplying to the pirates. In particular, tourism sources in the Seychelles have denounced the media reports as pure fiction and as manufactured by sensationalists posing as journalists over the recent capture of a British couple, whose yacht was seajacked en route from Mahe to Tanzania, suggesting the said media organizations in the UK have an ulterior motive and hidden agenda.

In a sign of market confidence, Air Mauritius took delivery last week of an additional brand-new two class (C/Y) A330-200 aircraft, the second such jet in its fleet. Sources from the island’s capital, Port Louis, also confirmed that Air Mauritius is already operating a number of the four engine A340 jets for its long-haul and high-density routes. The island is a major tourism destination in the Indian Ocean and does not permit all-inclusive tour charters and requires visitors to use scheduled airlines to come to Mauritius. For more information visit, the official tourist board, for details on visits to high-class resorts dotted along the white beaches and the activities on offer for visitors. Mauritius has air links with east Africa via Nairobi, although it is hoped that eventually other key centers like Dar es Salaam and Entebbe Kampala can also be linked with direct flights.

East Africa tourism report
HE General Salva Kiir Mayardit, President of souther Sudan / Image via

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